In the last post I laid out the four uses of the word katekeo by Luke. Here I'll look at Paul's four uses.
The first is Romans 2:18:
Here Paul uses the word to refer to Jews “instructed by the Law.” Again, there's just a general sense of the term instruction, but what's important to note is that instruction is not necessarily a good thing! Being instructed in the Law is not the same as actually living it out. Here Paul is railing against instruction that amounts to hypocrisy: teaching others but not teaching oneself; preaching against stealing but going ahead and stealing yourself. The Pauline scholars can say much more about Paul's arguments, interlocuters, etc. But for our purposes it's pretty clear that instruction in the Law is worthless if it's used as something to boast about, rather than manifesting in fruits of righteousness.
The next use is 1 Corinthians 14:19:
In the context of talking about organized and edifying worship, Paul uses the word here to stress the value of clear teaching. Speaking in tongues are great, but only if someone can interpret them.
The final passage is from Galatians 6:6, where Paul uses the word twice:
An (overly) literal reading would be: “Let the catechumen in the word share all good things with the catechist.” While that’s not the best translation for the first-century context, it does, I think, capture the teacher-student relationship in view here.
Looking back over the eight NT uses of the word katekeo, we've seen that it's more or less a general word for teaching or instruction, with hints that it implies a more specific meaning. We obviously can't build a theology of catechesis based on word usage in the NT. But we can appreciate that the NT church was a teaching church, and that instruction was a necessary component to their way of life.